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2018年6月15日 (金)

短期消滅時効の適用のある債権について勝訴判決を得たのち一部弁済があった場合、時効期間は何年になるか

 例えば、売掛金として2年の短期消滅時効の適用のある債権(民法改正前)について勝訴判決を得ると、時効期間は10年に延長される。

 ここで、その10年に戻った債権について、判決確定後に一部弁済があり、時効が中断した場合に、その後の時効期間は何年になるか、という問題を考えたい。

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 たとえば、売掛債権の判決確定から1年を経過したときに一部弁済があったとすると、そこからの時効期間は10年なのか、売掛債権の短期消滅時効にもどって2年なのか、はたまた、9年(10年―1年)なのか、仮に、判決確定から一部弁済の間で改正民法が施行された場合には5年になるのか。

 この問題については、判決確定によりなぜ時効期間が10年になるのか、その理由を探るとヒントになりそうだ。

 なぜ10年に延長されるかについては、確定判決によって債権の存在が公の手続きによって明確になったのであるから、原則的な時効期間である10年に延長されると説明されているようである。

 つまり、10年は確定判決を取得した特典ということではなく、短期消滅時効制度から解放されて原則的な期間に戻るという意味のようである。「時効期間の転換」というような表現もされているようである。

 このような考え方を前提に本問を検討すると、判決確定後に一部弁済があつたとしても、既に「時効期間の転換」が生じているのであるから一部弁済後の時効期間は10年と考えるのが相当であると思われる。

 ところで、改正民法は、判決確定後の消滅時効期間は10年とし、改正前の期間を維持している。一方で、一般の債権の消滅時効期間は権利を行使することができることを知ったときから5年、権利を行使することができるときから10年を原則的な期間としている。

 そうすると、改正前は「時効期間の転換」という論理で判決確定後の時効期間10年の説明がされていたが、改正後に「時効期間の転換」の論理を持ち出してくると、判決確定後の消滅時効期間は、権利を行使することができることを知ったときから5年、権利を行使することができるときから10年となってしまい、判決確定後の時効期間を10年とすることと整合性がとれなくなってくるのではないか。

 ふとそう思ったので、備忘録として掲げておく。

◆◆◆◆◆◆◆◆◆◆◆◆◆◆◆◆
当事務所では、2020年4月1日から施行される改正民法(民法の一部を改正する法律(平成29年法律第44号)について、契約実務の観点からFAQを順次作成しております。

ここをクリックしていただくとご覧いただけますのでご活用ください。

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And then send out abusive messages with the address of your site.
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投稿: RichieHok | 2019年5月26日 (日) 05時28分

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